50-State Summary
and
Non-Conviction Gap Statistics

The following tables provide descriptive statistics for each of the 50 states generated based on state-level samples collectively comprising ~60,000 background checks as reported in the appendices of America's Paper Prisons: The Second Chance Gap

(Suggested Citation: Colleen V. Chien, America's Paper Prisons: The Second Chance Gap, 119 Mich. L. Rev. 519 (2020) (Appendix)


Appendices Table A-2 (State Level Basic Statistics) and A-3 (Disposition Statistics) profile the charges associated with each state’s sample, and among these charges, the share and number that are misdemeanors, felonies, minor and not classified, as well as the share and number of various dispositions within each set of charges (convicted, not convicted, diverted or deferred, pending/transferred, or unknown).

Appendix Table B-1 profiles each state’s sample of people, and within the sample: the conviction rate and modeled non-conviction clearance policy,* and, based on the modeled non-conviction clearance policy: the share of people with clearable records in the sample and share of people who could clear their records entirely within the sample.

* = superstrict = unconvicted charges not clearable, strict = only incidents fully non-convicted clearable, lenient = unconvicted charges generally clearable

Appendix Table B-2 reports on people within each state’s sample with (partially and fully) clearable records, with felony and clearable felony records, and, based on extrapolating to the state share of people with records based on the SEARCH 2018 report, an estimate of how many people have clearable non-conviction records and felonies.


Table A-2 (State Level Basic Statistics)

StateCharge CountMisdemeanor %Felony %Minor %Not classified %Charge Conviction %Nonconviction %Diversion or Deferral %Pending/Transferred %Unknown %
Total463,97467.58%23.40%8.67%0.35%58.89%34.58%1.35%3.70%1.49%
AK332270.59%14.18%15.23%0.00%82.27%16.98%0.12%0.57%0.06%
AL438655.38%35.64%8.98%0.00%57.82%37.25%1.07%3.85%0.00%
AR524075.27%19.50%5.17%0.06%68.80%23.45%1.34%4.39%2.02%
AZ1286544.89%29.00%21.27%4.84%53.74%42.09%0.18%2.17%1.82%
CA721964.86%26.96%8.19%0.00%74.35%23.59%0.39%0.80%0.87%
CO1534347.94%16.33%35.50%0.23%41.05%57.60%0.34%0.04%0.97%
CT341172.59%27.00%0.41%0.00%82.35%17.38%0.06%0.03%0.18%
DE689673.36%22.32%4.31%0.01%31.28%66.84%0.46%0.44%0.99%
FL2990654.17%17.80%27.90%0.13%40.50%50.22%1.14%2.21%5.92%
GA878770.73%29.11%0.14%0.02%48.50%36.11%0.08%10.70%4.61%
HI296866.41%25.00%8.52%0.07%58.93%38.11%2.63%0.17%0.17%
IA1282293.60%5.20%1.18%0.02%74.33%23.53%1.41%0.19%0.55%
ID1489548.66%7.87%43.47%0.00%69.71%24.95%1.26%3.29%0.79%
IL828652.82%25.34%21.61%0.22%40.08%47.61%0.49%8.18%3.63%
IN1053062.73%14.30%22.85%0.12%61.86%36.57%0.72%0.44%0.41%
KS215067.95%30.70%1.35%0.00%54.56%41.35%3.53%0.23%0.33%
KY550069.35%17.02%13.64%0.00%60.44%30.42%1.91%5.78%1.45%
LA397555.57%34.04%10.39%0.00%58.74%38.99%0.40%1.38%0.48%
MA397160.72%35.58%3.65%0.05%25.99%70.39%0.98%2.29%0.35%
MD2121872.74%15.87%10.84%0.55%16.73%62.57%0.00%20.14%0.56%
ME356880.41%19.06%0.53%0.00%74.83%23.49%0.25%0.64%0.78%
MI352462.32%36.92%0.77%0.00%60.98%34.36%0.06%4.20%0.40%
MN1110794.63%5.07%0.19%0.12%84.18%14.49%0.14%0.98%0.21%
MO623163.06%32.47%3.90%0.58%92.20%3.61%0.00%0.08%4.11%
MS250961.62%38.10%0.28%0.00%63.45%25.11%0.36%9.29%1.79%
MT314271.23%28.71%0.06%0.00%62.57%28.80%4.77%3.25%0.60%
NC2619139.83%17.86%42.30%0.00%38.09%59.28%0.00%1.73%0.91%
ND542886.31%9.86%3.70%0.13%88.84%5.27%0.09%0.35%5.45%
NE555380.82%10.39%8.77%0.02%69.98%27.07%0.11%2.76%0.09%
NH403329.78%69.40%0.72%0.10%60.97%37.86%0.00%1.12%0.05%
NJ508520.04%57.09%16.89%5.98%42.05%50.97%0.53%5.57%0.88%
NM1136176.03%23.15%0.44%0.38%27.02%60.74%5.62%6.57%0.04%
NV5430576.22%23.70%0.06%0.01%51.99%38.70%0.71%7.24%1.36%
NY290942.52%53.28%4.16%0.03%71.47%7.29%0.00%19.35%1.89%
OH957586.91%12.68%0.34%0.06%62.83%27.89%0.15%3.57%5.57%
OK735880.39%17.74%1.77%0.11%60.34%23.10%16.24%0.03%0.29%
OR755640.85%25.94%33.07%0.13%61.39%36.83%0.79%0.94%0.04%
PA2716471.23%26.23%1.78%0.76%34.38%37.94%0.03%22.18%5.47%
RI390872.85%26.43%0.69%0.03%60.67%34.34%0.15%4.20%0.64%
SC1478187.71%11.91%0.31%0.07%76.97%21.11%0.00%1.79%0.13%
SD428686.79%10.43%2.75%0.02%59.50%38.71%0.02%1.00%0.77%
TN939977.06%18.30%3.71%0.93%39.59%45.72%2.32%8.25%4.13%
TX1163873.90%20.63%4.45%1.01%47.59%36.04%7.97%1.03%7.38%
UT657090.14%6.83%3.03%0.00%64.28%34.79%0.03%0.88%0.02%
VA1066857.80%23.03%18.94%0.23%58.08%36.50%0.25%3.08%2.08%
VT104587.66%12.34%0.00%0.00%98.37%0.19%1.24%0.10%0.10%
WA464380.10%19.71%0.19%0.00%59.27%37.86%2.33%0.13%0.41%
WI948363.07%22.07%14.45%0.41%67.08%30.55%0.75%0.32%1.31%
WV409872.79%26.74%0.46%0.00%41.51%51.42%0.98%5.81%0.29%
WY316684.43%15.29%0.28%0.00%61.75%32.79%3.00%1.30%1.17%


Table A-3 (Disposition Statistics)

StateCharge CountMisdemeanor Conviction countFelony Conviction disposition countMinor and Not Classified Conviction CountNonconvictionDiversion countPending/transferred countUnknown count
Total463,974174,43142,55256,226160,4266,25417,1706,915
Share of Total Count-37.6%9.2%12.1%34.6%1.3%3.7%1.5%
AK33222,0302934105644192
AL43861,5497632241,634471690
AR52402,7746661651,22970230106
AZ128653,3171,5442,0535,41523279234
CA72193,6691,3693291,703285863
CO153433,0259272,3468,838526149
CT34111,93186810593216
DE68961,598514444,609323068
FL299067,0421,9103,16315,0193416611,770
GA87873,1021,15643,1737940405
HI29681,0475071951,1317855
IA128229,0883261153,0171812471
ID148954,9024755,0063,716188490118
IL82861,2921,0291,0013,94541678301
IN105303,9077601,8473,851764643
KS215079437278897657
KY55002,5084293871,67310531880
LA39751,2918511931,550165519
MA39714315011002,795399114
MD212182,74354126613,27604,273119
ME35682,2214381183892328
MI35241,394741141,211214814
MN111078,942384241,6091610923
MO62313,7641,71326822505256
MS25091,0135727630923345
MT31421,527439090515010219
NC261914,3001,7523,92215,5260453238
ND54284,231399192286519296
NE55533,3142153561,50361535
NH40338491,592181,5270452
NJ50854741,0695952,5922728345
NM113612,406599666,9016387465
NV5430524,1224,107421,0163863,932739
NY29099011,14038212056355
OH95755,401601132,67014342533
OK73583,639711901,7001,195221
OR75561,6171,0761,9462,78360713
PA271647,0591,96431610,30686,0251,486
RI39081,843513151,342616425
SC1478110,509831373,120026519
SD42862,300171791,65914333
TN93992,8247711254,297218775388
TX116384,2301,0442634,194928120859
UT65703,8462541232,2862581
VA106683,6321,1901,3753,89427329222
VT1045903125021311
WA46432,08565981,758108619
WI94833,8761,2151,2692,8977130124
WV40981,451236142,1074023812
WY31661,71823071,038954137


Table B-1

StateIncidentsChargesUnique PeopleConviction_RateNon_Conviction_Clearance_PolicyWaiting Period? (days)Num_of_People_with Clearable_Records% of People with Clearable Records within SampleShare of People That Could Clear Their Record Entirely within Sample
Total204,197372,67361,65880%- 26,82639%22%
AK1,9982,8031,16995%Strict60706%5%
AL2,1803,7891,19970%Lenient73048240%24%
AR2,8764,5821,24589%Strict 38431%26%
AZ4,6099,1121,68285%Super Strict 00%0%
CA4,2106,4972,03294%Strict 36518%15%
CO4,1989,6781,56673%Strict 96261%40%
CT2,3803,3921,22191%Lenient39529124%18%
DE2,7966,4731,24362%Strict 80064%51%
FL10,51119,6812,68555%Super Strict 00%0%
GA3,4867,4231,74877%Strict146036821%15%
HI1,6962,6251,05466%Lenient 54752%42%
IA8,22112,4111,58195%Strict18063640%27%
ID4,8298,0111,28886%Strict36556844%32%
IL3,7765,6971,67960%Strict 1,08064%56%
IN3,8667,9731,40881%Lenient36581558%30%
KS1,1942,03475475%Strict 29739%34%
KY2,8634,2971,25686%Lenient 56545%33%
LA2,2783,4851,28075%Strict 52941%37%
MA1,9983,6811,24922%Lenient182534027%11%
MD5,58614,9571,64558%Strict109595258%33%
ME2,1753,4921,26690%Strict 25220%17%
MI2,3763,3351,33481%Strict 47035%30%
MN7,66910,9251,86197%Strict 27615%10%
MO3,0535,6951,49897%Strict109500%0%
MS1,7682,2151,21080%Strict 30525%25%
MT1,8212,8711,16284%Strict 35631%27%
NC6,37314,4411,84865%Lenient 1,40676%53%
ND3,3744,9091,36699%Strict 987%6%
NE3,2114,9131,34689%Strict 39529%24%
NH1,8273,9551,19285%Strict 41635%27%
NJ1,7153,6611,06073%Strict 46043%38%
NM4,2759,8811,40162%Strict 1,02673%58%
NV27,10249,2321,66988%Strict 1,11867%38%
NY1,6542,2271,156100%Strict365222%2%
OH5,2258,6521,87793%Strict 52828%19%
OK2,9646,0191,21484%Lenient36551042%26%
OR2,5244,9181,25280%Lenient 72658%37%
PA5,79619,0501,90587%Lenient 1,13359%29%
RI2,4743,6851,27377%Strict 53642%36%
SC7,93114,4441,65895%Lenient 68741%27%
SD2,6284,1001,25990%Strict 35028%20%
TN3,9317,6671,48268%Lenient 1,06272%49%
TX6,5629,1832,12171%Strict3651,09552%43%
UT3,7236,3101,41685%Strict18058842%31%
VA4,6638,1322,09881%Strict 95546%37%
VT7471,030473100%Lenient36510%0%
WA3,2004,5021,54967%Strict73060139%31%
WI3,3697,8531,39193%Strict 30322%14%
WV2,2803,7891,24372%Strict6063851%40%
WY2,2362,9861,23382%Strict18046237%32%


Table B-2

State% of People with Clearable Records within Checkr Sample # of People That Could Clear Their Record Entirely within Checkr SampleShare of People That Could Clear Their Record Entirely within Checkr Sample# People with a Felony Charge # People with a Felony Charge that could remove any Felony Charges% People with a Felony Charge that could remove any Felony Charges% of people nationally with records (SEARCH)Crim Population-balanced share of people with clearable recordsNumber of People Estimated to Have Clearable Records (M)Number of People Estimated to Have Records Clearable of Felonies
Total39%13,68922%23,2007,47632%100.0%35.4%25.5013.92
AK6%545%2422812%0.3%0.0%0.010.006
AL40%29024%55314226%2.1%0.8%0.610.297
AR31%32326%3329027%0.7%0.2%0.150.043
AZ0%00%80100%1.7%0.0%0.000.000
CA18%31015%63012119%9.8%1.8%1.270.497
CO61%61940%54520938%1.6%1.0%0.710.239
CT24%21518%494347%1.1%0.3%0.190.029
DE64%63351%42818343%2.2%1.4%1.040.301
FL0%00%1,06700%5.9%0.0%0.000.000
GA21%25715%65112119%3.8%0.8%0.570.271
HI52%44742%2459037%0.5%0.3%0.190.038
IA40%42227%2238036%0.7%0.3%0.200.038
ID44%40732%25211646%0.4%0.2%0.120.034
IL64%94256%67725237%6.5%4.2%2.990.800
IN58%42530%44421348%1.6%0.9%0.680.340
KS39%25634%2809133%1.4%0.5%0.390.140
KY45%42033%28214050%1.3%0.6%0.420.141
LA41%47837%57520135%1.5%0.6%0.460.193
MA27%13911%50292%1.4%0.4%0.280.018
MD58%54633%62032853%1.5%0.9%0.620.371
ME20%21417%3116521%0.5%0.1%0.070.023
MI35%40030%48910321%2.9%1.0%0.720.187
MN15%18010%2013115%1.0%0.2%0.110.019
MO0%00%53000%1.5%0.0%0.000.000
MS25%30025%5086813%0.9%0.2%0.170.039
MT31%31927%36314239%0.2%0.1%0.050.022
NC76%98153%49540281%1.6%1.2%0.860.354
ND7%836%175169%0.2%0.0%0.010.002
NE29%32624%2119545%0.4%0.1%0.080.024
NH35%32227%1,01236136%0.4%0.1%0.110.121
NJ43%39838%76733844%2.1%0.9%0.660.564
NM73%80758%39226668%0.6%0.4%0.300.100
NV67%63938%62142468%0.8%0.5%0.390.256
NY2%212%805152%9.0%0.2%0.120.089
OH28%36119%35214541%2.2%0.6%0.450.182
OK42%31926%409287%0.9%0.4%0.290.025
OR58%46337%55729954%1.2%0.7%0.480.311
PA59%55929%68245366%2.6%1.5%1.100.894
RI42%46036%35514641%0.9%0.4%0.280.087
SC41%45227%53535967%1.6%0.7%0.470.373
SD28%24620%2027336%0.3%0.1%0.060.016
TN72%73149%39824662%2.1%1.5%1.090.367
TX52%90543%62021334%13.0%6.7%4.831.138
UT42%44631%1615132%0.7%0.3%0.210.024
VA46%78637%54226048%2.1%1.0%0.700.231
VT0%00%7400%0.2%0.0%0.000.025
WA39%48031%3927018%1.6%0.6%0.460.067
WI22%19214%6089315%1.4%0.3%0.220.104
WV51%49240%37619351%0.6%0.3%0.240.093
WY37%39732%2147334%0.2%0.1%0.050.009

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